Bangladesh 

 

      Risk assessment and management                          

Md.Fazlur Rahman
Assistant chief
Ministry of Environment & Forest

Contents
Introduction
Implementation of Article 19 (What are the cirrent steps being unertaken to implemant biosefty work. who are the focal points, competent authorities etc).
Institutional set up for Biotehnology Activities:
Capacity development:
Capacity building
Regional cooperation Mechanism
Recommendation for the activities

1.Introduction.

            Bangladesh is situated at the complex at the coplex interface of the indian the Himalayan and the southeast Asian biographic regions, and historically was well- endowed with a very diverse complements of terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna.

          Of the total land surface of 14.4 million ha, 9.1 million ha are used for agriculture, 2.85 million ha are under tree cover ( forest), 2.31 ,million ha are settlements and the remaining area are regarded as fellow and miscellaneous land. Land use is a dynamic process and changes in land use pattern in land use pattern in Bangladesh have been driven by 1) expansion of agriculture land including HYV agricultural areas ii) water management intervention iii) development or rural infrastructure iv) urbanization and v) industrialization.

          The percentage of forestland has declined over the past few decades and presently stands at about 14 percent.  The actual tree cover is however  much less. Bangladesh has a rich biological heritage. About 5700 species of angiosperms are available in Bangladesh, which includes 68 woody legumes, 130 fibre yielding plans, 500 medicinal plans, and 29 orchids, Out these, 2260species are available in he Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) region. The natural forest of Bangladesh have been facing an onslaught since long and consequently a considerable portion of it hasalready been lost. This has resulted in the loss of wild biodiversity. There is only little reliable information on gene pools or varieties within species.

          Factors affecting the loss of biological diversity in Bangladesh include: (i) population pressure, (ii0 natural hazard (cyclone, tidal surge, flood etc.) (iii) overexploitation of biological resources, (iv) deforestation, (v) destruction of habital, (vi) flood control related activities causing destruction of wetlands, (ix) shifting cultivation in the hills etc.

          Bangladesh, being the party to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has undertaken an intertaken an international commitment to prepare a National Biodiversity Action Plan. Quite a good number of biodiversity-related programs and projects are now under implementation or itn the design stage.

Bangladesh has achieved self-suffiency of food grain through introduction the biotechnology. Government has established National Institute of biotechnology under the Ministry of the Ministry of science, Information and technology Communication. The ministry of science, Information and technology Communication will take care the research activities and the Ministry of Environment and Forest will take care management aspect of biotechnology activities. Bangladesh has cautious about bad effect of the biotechnology use and transpotation of GMOs/LMOs . For the smooth implementation Cartagena Protocol, first priori is to formulate National Biosafety Framework.
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2.Implementation of Article 19 (What are the cirrent steps being unertaken to implemant biosefty work. who are the focal points, competent authorities etc).

The Government of Bangladesh has formulated and brought out bio-safety guidelines for facilitating biotechnological research. For the protection of LMo/GMo/GEo, the formulation of national bio-safely act is in process. Moreover, Biodeversity and community knowledge Protecetion Act and Plant Diversity Act are under review for consideration of enactment. Ministry of Environment & forest will be the national focal point biosafety protocol.The compelent authorities to implement the acticle 19 are Ministry of Environment & Forest with collaboration of the Ministry of science, Information and technology Communication, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock and Ministry of Health and Family Wellfare.
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3.Institutional set up for Biotehnology Activities:

A legal institutional set up to take care the biotechnology activities will establish after finalization of National Biosafety Framework. After agreement on the Cartagena Protocolon Biosafety, Goverment has cosidered In present, the following ministries are involved for biotechnology activities -         

a) Ministry of Environment & Forest(MOEF)

 b) Ministry of Fisheries and livestock(MOFL)

 c) Ministry of Agriculture

 d) Ministry of Science, information and Technology Communication(MOSITC).

Under Ministry of Environment & Forest(MOEF)

                    1. Bangladesh Forest Research Institute

                    2. Department of Environment

                    3. Forest Department

Under the Ministries of Fiosheries and livestock:

1. Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute.

2. Bangladesh livestock Research Institute.

Under the Ministry of Agriculture

1. Bangladesh Rice Tesearch Instntute. 

2. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute.

3. Bangladesh Agricultural Research council.

4. Bangladesh Agricultere University

Under the Ministry of science, Information and Technology communication

a. Bangladesh centre for Scientific and Industrial Research.

b. National Instule of Biotechnology
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4. Capacity development:

For proper implementation of biosafety Protocol, the following field need to be focused for capacity development.

          a) In house capacity building

                    1) Technical and technological

                    2) Training

                    3) Human Resource Development

                    4) Labrotary trail

                    5) Workshop

                    6) Seminor  

b) A regulatory system

b) An administrative system

c) A dicision making system that includes risk assessment and     management for bio-technology.

d) Machenism for public pacticipation and information

e) Current use of modern biotechnology as defined in the Cartagena

    Protocol on Biosafety

f) Capacity building related to the safe use of biotechnology

g) Relevent training should provided to researchers

h) Logistics and financial support will be provided to review existing

 legislation or legal instrument related to biotechnology/biosafety

i) Access to relevant information for all stakeholders in accordance with the requirement of the Cartagena Protocal on Bio-bafely.

j) Development of National Biosafety Database and linkage to the Biosafety clearing House.

k) Mechanisms for adequate involvemant of all stakeleholders, including public and private sector, on issues related to bio-safety.

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5. Capacity building (what are the capacities that are in need for urgent development)

Proper implementation of bio-safety protocol, it is very urgent to fomulate National bio-safety tramework.

a) Position paper on biotechnology use

b) Action plan consultation with all stakeholders

c) Rosters relevant experts within the country, identify their experience and expertise, so that adquate coverage in all areas is obtatned and potential gaps can be identified. 

d) System for rosk assessment and management, including audit, which take into account national and sub-regional/ regional levels.

e) Mechanisms for sharing of scientific assessmant at sub-regional levels,

f) Identification of country nedds and mechanisms for Participation in the Bro-safety clearing House.

g) Mechanism for public consultation in dicision making process regarding LMOs.

h) A report on existing sub-regional bio-safety frameworks and mechanism for harmonization of risk assessment Management.

UNDP-GEF can make financial, technological and technical support for fomulating National Bio-safety Fromework.

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6. Regional cooperation Mechanism:

          a) Exchange data on biosafety

          b) Technology transfer

          c) Exchange the information

7. Recommendation for the activities

National level:

1)   Set up a Netwark for information

                    a) working committee

                    B) Technical committee

     A multidisciplinary and multisectoral national commitee ( including the

     representative from public and private sectors releted to Bio-safety) may 

     constitute

ii) Provide the guideline for legal framework

iii) Provide the guideline for awareness activities for safe use of bio-

     technology.

iv) Review the transboundary movement of LMO.

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