Bhutan

 
   Risk assessment and management

Mr. Kumbu Dukpa
National Environment Commission

Ms. Medon Yaganagi
National Biodiversity Center/MoA


Contents

1 Abbreviations 2
2 Introduction 3
2.1 Bhutan and the Implementation of the CBD 3
2.2 Bhutan and the Cartagena Protocol 5
2.3 Bhutan and Biotechnology 6
3 Implementation of Article 19 of the CBD in Bhutan 7
3.1 Article 19, subparagraph 1 7
3.2 Article 19, subparagraph 2 8
3.3 Article 19, subparagraphs 3 and 4 8
4 Institutional Setup for Biotechnology Activities in Bhutan 9
4.1 Autonomous Agencies 9
4.1.1 The National Environment Commission: 9
4.2 Corporations 9
4.2.1 Druk Seed Corporation 9
4.2.2 Food Corporation of Bhutan 10
4.3 Organizations within the Ministry of Agriculture 10
4.3.1 The National Biodiversity Center 10
4.3.2 The Renewable Natural Resources Research Centers 10
4.3.3 The Quality Control and Regulatory Services 11
4.4 Other Ministries of the RGoB 11
5 Capacity Development 12
6 Capacity Building 14
7 Regional Cooperation Mechanisms 15
8 Specific Recommendations 15
9 Contact Details for Biotechnology Issues in the Country. 16
9.1 Ministry of Agriculture 16
9.2 Corporations and Autonomous Agencies. 16
9.2.1 For International Undertakings and Policy Decisions 16
9.2.2 For Commercial Applications in Biotechnology 16


1 Abbreviations

BAP Biodiversity Action Plan
BIBIS "Bhutan Integrated Biodiversity Information Systems" Project
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
COP Conference of Parties
FYP 9th Five-Year Plan
GEF Global Environment Facility.
ICCP Inter-governmental Committee for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
IMS Information Management Systems
IRRI International Rice Research Institute
LMO Living Modified Organism
MoA Ministry of Agriculture
NBC National Biodiversity Center
NCD Nature Conservation Division
NEC National Environment Commission
RGoB Royal Government of Bhutan
RNRRC's Renewable Natural Resources Research Centers
TA Technical Assistance
QCRS Quality Control and Regulatory Services
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

2 Introduction

This country report on the status of biosafety in Bhutan is prepared for submission to the Asia Regional workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk Management to implement the Cartagena Protocol, in New Delhi, India, 22-24 May 2002.

The Cartagena Protocol, which was adopted under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) on 29th January 2002, is a guiding framework for activities on biosafety. The main focus is on transboundary movement of living modified organism (LMO) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have an adverse effect on the conservation and the sustainable use of biological diversity. The protocol aims to derive the maximum benefits from biotechnology while minimizing the risks to natural environment and to human health. In accordance with Article 36, the Protocol was open for signature at the UN Headquarters in New York until 4th June 2001 and thereafter the Protocol has been left open for ratification only.

As the Cartagena Protocol was developed under the Convention of Biological Diversity, the next section deals with Bhutan and our position with regards to the CBD, followed by Bhutan and the Cartagena Protocol.

2.1 Bhutan and the Implementation of the CBD

Recognizing the importance and concerns associated with biological diversity at both the national and international arenas Bhutan became a Party and signed the CBD in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit, which was later ratified by the Royal Government of Bhutan (RGoB) in 1995. Since the ratification of the CBD, Bhutan has taken many steps in trying to fulfill its obligations under this international undertaking and is continually in the process of complying with the objectives and conditions set out under the different articles of the convention.

In line with Article 1 of the CBD, the RGoB has made the 'conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components" a priority during both its 8th Five Year and 9th Five Year Plan periods focusing on national strategies and programs to achieve this goal. During the 9th FYP period (i.e. July 1992- June 1997), the RGoB's interests has also been directed towards the field of bioprospecting to address issues such as the appropriate access to genetic resources and technologies and the equitable sharing of the benefits as outlined in Article 1.

In accordance with Article 6, required to address the needs for national strategies, plans and programs towards the conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity, Bhutan has taken many initiatives. One main step has been the development of a document titled "The Middle Path" in 1999, outlining the National Environment Strategy for Bhutan. The document was produced by the National Environment Commission (NEC), mandated to be the RGoB's main instrument to the undertakings of the CBD.

Additionally, to address the concerns, policies and action plans towards the nations biological diversity the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) developed the Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) document for Bhutan in 1998. The 2nd edition of this document was presented in April 2002 to the COP-6 at The Hague in Netherlands thus fulfilling Bhutan's obligations to the CBD under Article 26. Further the RGoB has established a National Biodiversity Center (NBC) within the MoA, mandated to coordinate and facilitate all the nations activities with regards to biodiversity and to integrate the conservation and the sustainable use of the biological diversity into the nations plans and programs. Further a "National Biodiversity Management Board" has been established with cross-sectorial representation. It is to be the executive and policy decision making body for all biodiversity issues in Bhutan.

In line with Article 8, towards the conservation of biological diversity in-situ, the RGoB has established the Nature Conservation Division (NCD) under the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA). The NCD manages the nations protected area systems, which currently covers a total area of about 36%. Additionally, the RGoB has set out numerous policies, legislation and acts to protect the country's natural ecosystems and resources.

More recently in compliance with Article 9 towards ex-situ conservation, the NBC has taken many initiatives; a national seed gene bank is being constructed at Serbithang, near the capital city Thimphu. Additionally the construction of a National herbarium has been completed to house more than 20,000 specimen and a Royal Botanical Garden for the ex-situ conservation of the flora of Bhutan has also been established, the development of the garden is underway at Serbithang.

For the 9th FYP period of the RGoB which commences in July 2002 many provisions have been made under different externally funded donor assisted projects to address the RGoB's commitments made under the CBD, specially with regards to Articles 7 (identification and monitoring), 10 (sustainable use), 12 (research and training), 13 (public education and awareness), and 14 (impact assessment). To cater to the needs above, and in line with Article 17 addressing information exchange, the RGoB through the NBC has developed a multi-stakeholder project to establish an integrated biodiversity Information web-based system in Bhutan. The project titled "Bhutan Integrated Biodiversity Information Systems (BIBIS) is in the pipeline awaiting implementation at the start of the RGoB's 9th Five year Plan (FYP) period.

With the RGoB planning on embarking on Bioprospecting during the 9th FYP issues under Article 15 (access to genetic resources), 16 (access and transfer of technology), 18 (technical and scientific cooperation) and 19 (use and benefits of biotechnology) will to be addressed. New establishments within the MoA such as the Quality Control and Regulatory Services (QCRS) and the NBC will be making initiatives towards addressing such issues. Given that Bhutan will be embarking on programs such as bioprospecting, we need to be aware of issues such as biosafety, LMO's and the Cartagena Protocol.

2.2 Bhutan and the Cartagena Protocol

As Party to the CBD and on the positive recommendations by participants to the 1st and subsequent meetings of the "Inter-governmental Committee for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (ICCP), the RGoB decided to sign the Protocol on Biosafety, but unfortunately missed the deadline for signature. Although the RGoB is keen to ratify the Cartagena Protocol, we are aware of the drawbacks with in-house technical and financial capability to implement its requirements. Furthermore, the Bhutanese government currently does not have adequate legal and policy frameworks and institutions with the required mandates to successfully implement such an undertaking. In spite of all these shortfalls, the RGoB attaches a huge importance to the Cartagena Protocol and the principles and objectives outlined. With inherent globalization and technological advancement, Bhutan is not in a position to be isolated from the emerging issues associated with biosafety.

The Cartagena Protocol on biosafety is very pertinent to Bhutan given that we have a large biodiversity resource base and is considered as one of the prominent biological hotspots and ecological wonders in the world. While aiming towards the conservation and the sustainable utilization of our biological resources we are aware of the need to exercise caution and control when allowing the import and use of LMO's and their products into our country, while at the same time we do appreciate the benefits that biotechnology can have on the sustainable economical and environmental development of the nation.

To achieve the philosophy of the "Middle Path' approach in this context, the RGoB realizes that Bhutan needs at the foremost the following;
· Technical ability to assess the safety or other wise of LMO's in order to make appropriate and intelligent decisions
· Capacity Building in three key fronts:
1. Biosafety regulations,
2. Scientific capacity, and
3. Monitoring and Enforcement capabilities.

With these points in mind and with the opportunity provided by UNEP/GEF on the possibility of financial assistance, Bhutan is in the process of developing a project proposal titled "Development of National Biosafety Frameworks". This is being done following set guidelines that address building the institutional and technical national capacity in the field of biosafety to meet the obligations under the Cartagena Protocol. On the successful completion of the national activities foreseen in the project we have the provision of becoming a Party to the Cartagena protocol.

The Asia regional workshop to address issues on the 'risk assessment and risk management to implement the Cartagena protocol" in Delhi will be a timely contribution in our endeavors to develop a biosafety project for Bhutan, which will also take into consideration regional and global concerns.

2.3 Bhutan and Biotechnology

Bhutan's track record with respect to biotechnology has been almost non-existent. Till now the RGoB has not identified the need to use biotechnology as a tool for the sustainable environment and economic development of the nation. The RGoB has invested in establishing two tissue culture labs, one for the commercial propagation of selected crop specimens and the other for research and development of agro-biodiversity. However in both the labs only propagation work has been initiated to date. One of the major drawbacks for the slow adoption of biotechnology has been the poor development of infrastructure and facilities compounded by the lack of trained specialized human resource capacity.

As biotechnology is an important aspect that has been referred to in the CBD Article 8, subparagraph (g) Article 16 and Article 19 and the resulting Cartagena Protocol the remaining sections of this paper will specifically address biotechnology and related issues focusing at the national and regional levels. Starting with the implementation of Article 19 of the CBD, "Handling of Biotechnology and Distribution of its Benefits", followed with the current institutions in Bhutan to handle biotechnology and its aspects and emphasizing the capacity building needs. The last section covers the regional mechanisms and some recommendations from our side.

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3 Implementation of Article 19 of the CBD in Bhutan

Article 19 of the CBD focuses on the "Handling of Biotechnology and Distribution of its Benefits", within four subparagraphs. The subparagraphs focus on Contracting Parties to establish appropriate policy and legislative measures for biotechnology research, establish access and benefit sharing mechanisms resulting from biotechnology, develop protocols associated with LMO's resulting from biotechnology and provide information for the safe use and handling of such organisms, respectively.

This section of the paper attempts to address the steps undertaken by Bhutan to address such issues and identifies the focal points and competent authorities involved.

3.1 Article 19, subparagraph 1

With regards to Article 19, subparagraph 1 on legislative and policy measures, Bhutan does not have any existing policies or legislation on biosafety. Bhutan is yet to develop concise and appropriate national legislative and policy measures on biosafety that would guide us on embarking in future biotechnology associated research.

Although Bhutan does not have the appropriate legislation in place there have been instances we have provided genetic material for use in breeding and biotechnology for research purposes. For example we have contributed hundreds of local rice germplasm to the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines and have developed institutional linkages with them for further research activities. The MoA within the RGoB has four Renewable Natural Resources Research Centers (RNRRC's) established in the country to undertake possible research-orientated activities in biotechnology.

Additional to the CBD and to meet the obligations under the Cartagena protocol Bhutan needs to enact national biosafety legislation. This will have the force of law and its implementation can be backed by corrective measure. Comprehensive national legislation will also ensure that the unique risks and hazards of LMO's are fully taken into account and regulated specifically and appropriately. The formulation of national biosafety legislation must benefit from an open and participatory process. Given the volume and strength of worldwide public concern and consumer opposition towards genetic engineering and biotechnology, a national process that is transparent, accountable and one, which involves all levels of public participation, will be crucial.

The legal section under the NEC will have to take the critical role to implement the process. Currently under the MoA there are adhock projects dealing with different conditions of access and benefit sharing mechanisms and legal framework for biological diversity. The NBC under the MoA with external technical assistance is in the process of developing a legal and policy frameworks for Plant Genetic Resources. Another section facilitated by the MoA is dealing with food safety and concerns of LMO's in this aspect have been highlighted. The QCRS dealing with import permits have developed formats for monitoring the transboundary movement of biological resources but are yet to include LMO's in their quest.
3.2 Article 19, subparagraph 2

With respect to subparagraph 2, access and benefit sharing resulting from biotechnologies, it is apparent that given the present technological capacity in Bhutan that we would be a contracting party permitting access to our rich biological and would gain benefits from biotechnological activities undertaken in collaboration efforts. With this in mind the NBC has developed the first draft of the National access legislation for Plant Genetic Resources in Bhutan, which is in the nations best interests and suitable to the national and international conditions. The conditions for benefit sharing have also been outlined where the transfer of technology and capacity building for partners has been emphasized. This document however needs to be formally presented to and approved by the RGoB.

3.3 Article 19, subparagraphs 3 and 4

Regarding subparagraphs 3 and 4, associated with LMO's resulting from biotechnology, we would like to state that so far Bhutan has not had the provision to develop any LMO's using biotechnology in the country and hence we have not adversely affected the biological diversity of any nation. There have also been no instances or reports of any LMO's being imported in the country, in the future the QCRS will be the focal point and authority that will monitor the movement of LMO's. The procedures and protocols are yet to be developed, which will address the safety measures in transfer and handling and advance inform agreement contracts highlighting potentially adverse impacts on human health and the environment. Such concerns will probably be addressed through the "Biosafety Project" being initiated by the NEC to implement the Cartagena protocol.

4 Institutional Setup for Biotechnology Activities in Bhutan

In order for Bhutan to ratify the Cartagena Protocol, National level capacity needs to be developed including the institutional capacity to deal with the various aspects of the protocol. Since ratifying the CBD, the RGoB of Bhutan has established additional organizations to deal with the conservation, management and the sustainable utilization of the nations biological resources. However none of the organizations have had mandates directly linked to biotechnology. These organizations will play a different role with regards to the biotechnology activities in the country. Given the current situation and programs being implemented it is apparent that strong institutional linkages and an integrated approach needs to be taken into consideration.

This section thus provides brief details of the ministries and agencies involved with biotechnology activities in Bhutan, including their roles responsibilities.

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4.1 Autonomous Agencies

4.1.1 The National Environment Commission:

The NEC is an autonomous agency of the RGoB and the national focal point for the environment policies. NEC is also the RGoB's instrument to the undertakings under the CBD. With regards to biosafety and biotechnology, NEC has taken the initiative to develop a project proposal for support under UNEP/GEF for the development of Bhutan's Biosafety Frameworks. It will be the national executing agency and the legal entity responsible for the biosafety project. Within its internal staff structure, Legal personnel are recruited in the NEC. Other staff include the environment impact assessment officers who will probably play an important role in the future in assessing and advising the RGoB on the impact of externally introduced or internally created LMO's in the country.

4.2 Corporations

4.2.1 Druk Seed Corporation

1. The Druk Seed Corporation: Attached to the MoA also deals with biotechnologies for small-scale commercial purposes where to date the main focus has been on tissue culture of some economically important crop plants.

The role of the private sector in Bhutan with regards to the sustainable utilizing of biotechnological applications for commercial gain is in its infancy.

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4.2.2 Food Corporation of Bhutan

2. The Food Corporation of Bhutan: Established in 1974 deals with the procurement and distribution of essential food items in the nation. One of its mandates is to maintain Food reserves and undertake business in agriculture and related products.

4.3 Organizations within the Ministry of Agriculture

Under the MoA the institutional setup to deal with biotechnology activities are mainly centered with the NBC, RNRRC's and the QCRS.

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4.3.1 The National Biodiversity Center

The NBC was formally established as the non-departmental agency under the MoA to oversee and ensure the implementation of Biodiversity Action Plan, 1998; to promote biodiversity conservation and the sustainable use of biological resources on equitable terms of benefit sharing. The NBC was established as the RGoB recognized the need for organizing and coordinating the national biodiversity activities under a single administrative and management structure to establish the foundation for local, regional and global efforts in biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses of its components.

It is mandated to be a framework for organizing Bhutan's biodiversity related activities; be a mechanism for national decision-making on biodiversity concerns, cutting across sectors, divisions and institutions; be a mechanism to guarantee a better national balance between conservation and sustainable utilization of biological resources in general, and between in situ and ex situ conservation in particular; be a mechanism to facilitate sub-regional, regional and international cooperation; and assure the continuity of biodiversity related activities over time.

Within its framework the NBC has sections to deal with the conservation and the sustainable utilization of Agrobiodiversity. With assistance of the Netherlands government a National Gene bank is under construction, which will be completed by the end of 2002, with the provisions of a biotechnology lab attached to its premises. Through the same project there is a provision to train a technical staff for a six months course in biotechnology. The NBC is in the process of identifying a donor to assist in the development and implementation of a bioprospecting program in Bhutan. Where the need for a biotechnologist will be emphasized. Bhutan currently lacks trained specialists in this field although many individuals would have been partially exposed to biotechnological applications and procedures during their studies abroad.

4.3.2 The Renewable Natural Resources Research Centers

There are four RNRRC's in the country under the Department of Research and Development Services of the MoA. Each of these integrated centers has a national mandate to coordinating research in one of the four major fields of research i.e. Forestry (Yusipang in western Bhutan), field crops (Bajo in Wangdue, located in the western central part of the country), livestock (Jakar in Bhumthang, central Bhutan) and horticulture (Khangma in the far Eastern region of Bhutan). Each of these centers has a multi-disciplinary team of scientists.

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4.3.3 The Quality Control and Regulatory Services

The QCRS is a non-departmental agency within the MoA and mandated to promote and regulate the quality of goods and products in Bhutan; to ensure that the quality of food is safe for consumption; to check the flow of diseases in agriculture and livestock in collaboration with the Department of Health and Services. Other mandates include implementation of acts and bylaws of the RGoB related to RNR sector and to initiate amendments where necessary. Application and Permit forms for the import and export of agricultural goods, livestock etc have been developed by the analytical and certification division within QCRS. Phytosanitary certificates are also issued by QCRS depending on the importing country's regulations to facilitate trade.

4.4 Other Ministries of the RGoB

The other Ministries that would probably have institutional setups for biotechnology applications in the country would include the Ministry of Health and Education in Bhutan and the Ministry of Trade and Industries for license permits and trade negotiations for biotechnology industries. The former in its relationship with the scientific capacity and infrastructure to perform tests related to the affects of LMO's to human health, the facilities and infrastructure for primary health care in the country is relatively well established. Additionally the institute of traditional medicine and services under the Health department, involved with the processing of raw materials into medicinal products has well established laboratories and processing units, with the potential of expanding to biotechnological applications.

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5 Capacity Development

The table below provides an overview of the existing capacities including the specific capacities needed to implement Biosafety procedures in the country.

SL.No National Biosafety Actions to be implemented Existing Capacities Capacities Needed
1 Development of a legal framework and the instruments to implement biosafety procedures in the nation. (through multi-stakeholder involvement) Lawyers addressing concerns and issues for environment exist but less than 5 in the whole country Legal external Technical Expertise and training of the national existing lawyers in biosafety issues to develop an appropriate framework.
2 Development of the institutional capacity and defining specific roles and responsibilities to implement the frameworks for biosafety Institutions such as NEC, NBC, QCRS in place. Technical Assistance required for Institutional Development, to determine specific roles and responsibilities related to biosafety.
3 Strengthen the scientific knowledge base and documentation procedures in the country required for biosafety and biotechnology. Information sections established within most of the RGoB agencies with limited manpower and facilities. Manpower required to collect, and entry data and information.Infrastructure such as computers with access to the internet need to be purchased and established
4 Build a national scientific and technical capacity to deal with biotechnological research RGoB personnel available but lack specific training in biotechnology.Basic lab facilities for biotechnological based activities available in the country Specialized training in biotechnological required for selected RGoB staffEstablishment of biotechnology labs around the country and purchase of appropriate equipment for laboratory work.
5 Develop appropriate Information management systems, and public awareness schemes and establish a Biosafety Clearing House mechanism IMS systems being developed within different Ministries for different purposes Technical Assistance in IT required to help establish appropriate IMS for biosafety information.Procurement of equipment related to IT in relevant institutions
6 Monitoring and evaluation of LMO's QCRS in place but lacks trained personnel in this field. Technical assistance required to help in setting some standard protocols for risk assessment (to human health and the environment assessment)Training of personnel in this field required
7 Development of risk management protocols for LMO's Not yet developed Need TA and relevant training in this field.
8 Establish appropriate emergency measures for accidental movements of LMO's (including isolation and control chambers) Not yet developed Need TA to assist in developing appropriate measures. Need to build the required infrastructure.
9 Training of field staff in the implementation of specialized biosafety activities in the country No specialists trained in this field TA required to develop training manuals for set protocols on biosafety.Specialized training and exchange programs with other regional centers involved in biotechnology and biosafety.

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6 Capacity Building

Bhutan needs to collaborate for financial and technical assistance with other international organizations to assist in capacity building, to address both the institutional and human resources needs to implement the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety

The following are the capacities required urgently for the development, management and implementation of National Biosafety Frameworks in Bhutan.

· Assessment of existing laws and regulations pertinent to Protocol on biosafety to identify major gaps and weaknesses to develop appropriate legal and policy frameworks for biosafety and transboundary movement of LMO's.
· The strengthening of relevant existing institutions including coordination mechanisms;
· Development of national risk assessment and risk management capabilities;
· Promotion of public awareness and education;
· Human resources development to deal with biotechnological research and biosafety procedures, as well as increasing the knowledge base of legal experts and policy makers,
· Building capacities in monitoring compliance.

Bhutan is a developing country that does not have the infrastructure or know-how and experience in handling modern biotechnology. These gaps create difficulties in evaluating the risks of process and products of modern biotechnology. Access to biological resources, intellectual property rights to the products and biosafety are three inseparable issues, and capacity building in biosafety must take all these into account. The success of the Biosafety protocol depends on the indigenous capacities of the developing countries to fulfill the obligations under it. Human and financial resources, information exchange, technical assistance, capacity-building in various areas, and the creation of appropriate infrastructures will be essential elements to achieve the objectives of the protocol.

Bhutan is exploring the possibilities of requesting UNEP/GEF to support the NEC in meeting some of the obligations of the Convention on Biological Diversity and in building capacity to strengthen implementation of Biodiversity activities and development of the National Biosafety Framework. The activities will be carried out in close consultation and coordination with the National Biodiversity Center, the Nature Conservation Division and other relevant institutions and stakeholders of the RGoB.

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7 Regional Cooperation Mechanisms

This section identifies some of the types of regional cooperation mechanisms that would be beneficial to Bhutan's biosafety program.

· Sharing of experiences through regional workshops and visits.
· Identification of national biosafety experts in respective countries to exchange and share relevant information, meet regularly as well as function as an informal multinational technical backstopping team.
· Development of "best practices" in Asia and sharing.
· Establishment of on the job training/ exchange programs among the countries in the region.
· Development and publication of a regular regional biosafety journal that documents experiences as well as the status of the implementation of biosafety procedures in the member countries.

8 Specific Recommendations

These are listed for activities at the national, sub-regional and regional levels

· Nationally, need to secure funding to develop biosafety regulations, to develop the scientific capacity and to establish the monitoring and enforcement capability for biosafety.
· Information sharing and exchange on issues of relevance to the biosafety frameworks
· Regional Scientific committee to be established to provide technical assistance to countries requiring such services.
· Development of a website at both regional and national levels to facilitate information sharing
· Identification of regional institutions that provide training in this field

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9 Contact Details for Biotechnology Issues in the Country.


9.1 Ministry of Agriculture

1. National Biodiversity Cent (for national policy coordination, information management and development of monitoring and management instruments related to biodiversity

Program Director: Dr Ugyen Tshewang (02) 351218 (ph) 351095 (fax) , nbc@druknet.bt

2. Department of Research and Development Services (for research purposes)

Joint Director Research Division: Mr. Ganesh. Chettri (02) 322228(ph), 323562 (fax)

3. Quality Control and Regulatory Services (for access, material transfer permits etc)

Executive Director: Mr Karma Dorji (02) 327030 (Ph) 327032 (fax)

4. Planning and Policy Division of the MoA

Deputy Secretary: Dr. Pema Gyamtsho (02) 322545 (ph), 324189 (fax)

9.2 Corporations and Autonomous Agencies.

9.2.1 For International Undertakings and Policy Decisions

1.National Environment Commission.

Hon'ble Deputy Minister: Dasho Nado Rinchen, 324374 (ph), 323385 (fax)

9.2.2 For Commercial Applications in Biotechnology

1. Druk Seed Corporation. Paro (limited to Tissue Culture)

9.2.2.1.1 Managing Director: Jambey Dorjee: (08) 271462 (ph), (08) 271206 fax

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